People who learns to know Spring framework often confused by a confusing and generic term "Inversion of Control" (IoC) which can be achieved through "Dependency Injection" (DI):
Some good explanations about IoC I read online are:
IoC is a programming technique, expressed here in terms of object-oriented programming, in which object coupling is bound at run time by an assembler object and is typically not known at compile time using static analysis.
IoC is a common pattern in the Java community that helps wire lightweight containers or assemble components from different projects into a cohesive application.
Flyweight pattern is a structural pattern in GoF as it supports large numbers of fine-grained objects efficiently. Since each fine-grained object (e.g. a character in an editor application) may incur overhead that adds up. This pattern shares objects in a pool (Flyweight Factory) to minimize memory use.
In a Composite (or Decorator) structure, Prototype uses a prototypical instance to create new Composite Component. Composite is a structural pattern where as Prototype is creational pattern. They are related to each other in a sense that Prototype only make sense in the context of a structural pattern like Composite or Decorator.
Command pattern is a behavioral pattern in GoF as it allows us to decouple between the Invoker (a.k.a. sender, an object that invokes an operation) and the Receiver (an object that receives the request to execute a certain operation).
Also known as an action or transaction pattern.
The word 'memento' refers to an object kept as a reminder or souvenir of a person or event. Memento pattern is a behavioral pattern in GoF because it captures and externalize an object's internal state so that the object can be restored to this state at a later time.
State pattern is a behavioral pattern in GoF because it allows to alter its behavior when a context's internal state changes. The pattern handles each state using a separate state object and the transition from one state to another does not call for if-then statements.
Chain of Responsibility pattern is a behavioral pattern that sends data (a request, a Command) to an concrete handler object and if that handler object can't use/handle it, it passes the data/request to other objects along the chain until an handler object handles it.
Mediator pattern is a behavioral pattern that coordinates and encapsulates many-to-many communication/interaction among related objects (Colleagues) so that Colleagues interact not directly with other independent Colleagues, but indirectly with other Colleagues through a centralized Mediator.
Bridge pattern is categorized as a structural pattern in GoF because it structurally decouples abstraction from its implementation so that the two can vary independently. However, it is very similar to Strategy pattern which is categorized as a behavioral pattern.
Strategy pattern is a behavioral pattern that lets the algorithm vary independently from clients that use it by defining a family of algorithms, encapsulate each one, and make them interchangeable. An algorithm that's encapsulated in this way is called a strategy. Strategy is concerned with changing the behavior of an object.